HU - Hydrogeology and Environment

Journal of the Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environment, University of Würzburg (ISSN 09309-3757)

Editorial office: BGI, Greisingstr. 8, 97074 Würzburg, GERMANY

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Vol. 18 (1999)


Vol. 18, p. 1-160: 

Watershed Management In Wadi Hadi (Jordan)

Hakam Al-Alami

Watershed Management, Environmental Impact Assessment, Weirs, Dams, Unsuturated Zone, Artificial Recharge, Terrain Modeling, Geochemical Modeling

Jordan with its limited water resources and increased population is now facing significant impacts on the availability of the existing water resources. Therefore; managing and utilizing the undammed flood waters provide extra reliable sources of water. This study has proposed a sequence of weirs to be established on the major wadies along Wadi Hadi (Jordan). The proposed technique is expected to eliminate the threat of soil erosion and reduce flood velocity, which in turn increase the potentiality of recharging runoff effluents with minimized impacts on the local environment and low expenses. The majority of the proposed weirs for retaining flood water, reducing the flood velocity, and artificial recharge purposes, are underlain by the most important aquifers in the catchment area (A7)&(A5/6) formations. The computed infiltration rates for Weirs laying on (A7) formation have been found to range between 9x10-2 and 1x10-2 m3/s while, weirs based on the (A5/6) formation exhibit an infiltration rate ranging between 6x10-2 and 2.7x10-3 m3/s. On the other hand, weirs proposed for water retention and runoff suppression aims have been selected to lie poor aquifers (A3)&(A1/2). Reservoirs laying on (A3) formation are expected to infiltrate with a maximum rate of 1.2x10-4 m3/s, and a maximum infiltration rate of 8.3x10-6 m3/s is presented by weirs based on the poor aquifer (A1/2) .

Feasibility assessments of the proposed weirs with respect to the different year conditions have shown that the weirs might have been filled at least 9 times in each year and could have saved up to 2.9, 3.5, and 4% of the total flood water in wet, average and dry year conditions respectively. Consequently, the expected retained and recharged amounts of each weir can be considered as a multiple number of weir refills.

The done environmental impact assessments study has assured the feasibility of the proposed managing technique and considered it as a relevant substitution for dams in the study area as well as in areas of low dams construction potentiality and high evaporation rates.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 161-170: 

Influence of Long-term Overpumping on Groundwater Quality at Dhuleil Basin, Jordan

Atef Al-Kharabsheh

Jordan, Dhuleil, aquifer, groundwater quality, overpumping, and well.

Abstract: The long-term overpumping of groundwater resources has been investigated at Dhuleil basin, Jordan. The basin is forming the eastern part of Amman-Zerqa Basin. It is exploited from more than 100 wells that discharged their water from the upper aquifer, which is composed of basalt underlain by carbonates of the Upper Cretaceous rocks. The sharp increase in the electrical conductivity (EC), CaCO3, cations (Ca, Na, Mg, K) and anions (Cl, SO4, NO3) during 1971-1980 was due to the extensive overpumping of groundwater, the returned flow of contaminated irrigation water by the chemical fertilizers and the seepage of waste water. After 1981 some stability was occurred due to the decrease in the agricultural activities and the use of drip irrigation system. The average EC of the basin wells increased from 570 mS/cm in 1971 to more than 4000 mS/cm in 1997, the other cations and anions were also increased almost at the same ratio.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 171-179: 

Hydrochemistry of Springs and Groundwater as Affected by Human Activities / Karak area, Jordan

Anwar Jiries

Hydrochemistry, Pesticides, Heavy metals, Karak area

Abstract: Twelve groundwater and eighteen springs samples collected along the eastern highs of the Dead Sea area has been analyzed on their chemical constituents. The analysis included the major ionic composition HCO 3-, Cl -, SO 4 2-, NO 3 -, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+, Na + , K + and the heavy metals Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cr in addition to 110 types of commonly used pesticides in Jordan. The two sets of samples, namely spring and wells differ in their chemical characteristics reflecting the duration time of water rock interaction. The springs water has a higher salinity than that of the groundwater indicating that the later had a shorter residence time in the aquifer. The parameter which best show the difference is the Na:Cl ratio. It was less in springs water than in groundwater indicating the exchange of Na + for Ca 2+ in the clay mineral matrix along the flow paths.

Anthropogenic influences on the water chemistry in these environments were very clear in the springs water where, three types of organo chlorinated pesticides (OCP) were detected at concentrations above the WHO guideline. This can only be attributed to the agricultural activities and the shallow water table conditions around springs. No pesticide residues were recorded in the groundwater samples of the wells due to longer pathways of percolation to the groundwater table. No organophosphorous pesticides (OPP) were detected in any of the water samples due to the fast rate of their degradation.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 180-188: 

Karstification in Northwest Jordan - An enhancing Factor of Groundwater Pollution

Elias Salameh & Mohammad Al Farajat

karst, Jordan, pollution, cesspools, leachates

Abstract: The karstification of the chalky marl formation in the northwest part of the high lands of Jordan has been studied in details from the points of view of its distribution, geology, hydrogeology and development. It was found that the karstification is very extensive in its nature and distribution and exceeded all previous expectations.
Many springs in the area were in the course of this study identified and classified as "Karst springs".
Since the solid and liquid wastes of the area are disposed of in karst holes and caves, these wastes or their leachates very rapidly percolate to the groundwater mix with it and discharge with the spring's water.
Due to the very small self-purification capacity of karstic aquifer and the fast and short path ways of the water many springs in the area have in the mean time become severely polluted and unsuitable for human consumption.
Unless appropriate water and wastewater management programs aiming at eliminating the pollution sources are soonly developed and implemented, the whole groundwater's body may soon become deteriorated and unfit for human consumption or even irresponsive to rehabilitation programs.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 189-197: 

The Quantitative and Qualitative Impacts of the Rehabilitation of the Municipal Water Supply Network on the Groundwater Resources in Amman Area, Jordan

Elias Salameh & Tariq Abu Naseir

network rehabilitation, impacts on groundwater resources, leakage from cesspools, leakage from networks

Abstract: The rehabilitation of the water supply network in the Amman area aims at reducing the physical losses of the network from 30% of all the water introduced into the network at present to less than 10%. Applying different methods of groundwater balance equation, analyses of spring discharge depletion curves, calculating the stored amounts of water at times of highest and lowest spring discharge levels, and elaborating on the mixing ratios of chemical species resulted in quantifying the contribution of the different recharge sources to the aquifer, clarifying the quantitative and qualitative impacts of the network rehabilitation program on the groundwater resources. It was found that both the quantity and the quality of the groundwater will drastically deteriorate.

This result urges to develop programs and actions to alleviate the negative impacts of the network rehabilitation program on the groundwater resource, to be simultaneously implemented in order to avoid the degradation processes.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 198-216: 

Towards a Water Strategy for Jordan

Elias Salameh & Peter Udluft

This paper offers a comprehensive suggestion for a water strategy for one of the most severely water-stressed countries of the world.
The developed strategy was built on the availability of water resources, the demand areas and sectors, the magnitude of demand, the time frame to develop and make available a certain source, the cost of projects, the environmental and socioeconomic implications of projects, the political complications of developing certain water resources and the water protection requirements.
The proposed strategy shows that even a severely water-stressed country can cope with its population needs if scientific approaches are followed. This strategy shows that the proposed ideas of desalinating sea water and importing water from distant countries (Turkey, Iraq) are irrelevant for the coming two decades after which water needs are expected to flatten due to population growth stabilisation and application of sophisticated water technologies.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 217-231: 

Renewability Study of Disi - Wadi Yutum Aquifers' Water Using Isotopes and Hydrogeologic Analyses
(Groundwater Renewability in an Arid Area)

Elias Salameh & Raja Gedeon

Disi, Wadi Yutum aquifers, isotopic composition, salinity, recharge, ages.

Abstract: The throughput calculations and the analyses of the seasonal level fluctuations of the groundwater body of Disi aquifer in the southern most part of Jordan, reveal that the aquifer which contains several billion cubic meters of water with a TDS of 200-400 mg/l receives an average amount of recharge of 40-48 MCM/yr.
The detailed study of the isotopic composition and the water salinities of the different parts of the Disi aquifer reveal a variety of altitudes from which the precipitation recharge water originates.
The Disi aquifer spills over to Wadi Yutum which also receives recharge water coming from the floods of the wadi.
The tritium content of 0.5-6.2 TU shows that the aquifer is receiving recent recharge.
Rapid infiltration of precipitation water falling over barren, highly permeable rocks results in highly depleted isotopic composition of the groundwater.
The very low salinity of the groundwater in this arid area is attributed to rapid infiltration into a rock matrix composed of almost pure quartz grains.
The ratio of recharge along wadi Yutum relative to the overspill of Disi aquifer into it increases downgradient and results in younger water in this same direction.

Paper language: english

Vol. 18, p. 232-257: 

Hydrochemische Untersuchungen der Grundwässer von Ossa/E-Thessalien (Zentral-Griechenland)

[Hydrochemical Groundwater Investigations of Ossa/E-Thessaly (Central Greece)]

Georgios Stamatis

Hydrogeological and hydrochemical sketch maps, aquifers, springwater, hydrochemistry, concertration, mineralwater Ossa/E-Thessaly (Central Greece)

Abstract: The demand for drinking water and water for irrigation has been increased drastically the last years in the agricultural area of Eastern Thessaly. The last long dry period since 1985 has cansed seviar problems in the agricultural development of this area because of the negative water budget. The water table in the basin of Eastern Thessaly has been lowered dramatically. The mountains of Olympos, lower Olympos and Ossa are located to the NE of the basin of Thessaly. They present hydrogeological interest because of their geological structure and their large extent. In addition their water resources have not been exploited. The quality of the water determines its uses. For this reason the focus of the present study is on the chemical composition of the groundwaters of Mt. Ossa and the interpretation of their chemisty. The general hydrogeological conditions in the area of Mt. Ossa are also presented in brief in this study. Based on hydrogeological criteria 55 springs were sampled for hydrochemical analyses. Mt. Ossa is composed of Alpine metamorphic formations which geotectonically belong to the units of Ossa (mainly carbonate rocks) and Ambelakia (mainly schists). The unit of Ossa is autochthonous to para-autochthonous and forms a tectonic window. Ambelakia unit is overthrusted on the Ossa unit.

The metamorphic formations (phylites, gneisses, schists, ophiolites) are hydrogeologically similar. The rocks are strongly fractured and weathered due to tectonism. The metamorphic formations comprise the upper groundwater system while the underlying carstified carbonates (marbles and dolomites) form the lower carst groundwater system. The Neogene formations and the alluvial deposits are composed of alternating layers of various types of sedimentary rocks which form locally aquifers.

The hydrochemical analyses show the following:

  • The waters issuing from carbonate rocks have higher TDS values (205,7 - 761,1 mg/l). They are hard to very hard and belong to the hydrochemical types Ca-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3.
  • The waters issuing from metamorphic rocks have generally lower TDS values (107,4 - 503,5). They are almost soft to medium hard and belong to the hydrochemical types Ca-HCO3, Ca-Mg-(Na)-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-(Cl, SO4).
  • The waters issuing from Neogene and alluvial formations have low TDS values (204,8 - 467,5 mg/l). They are medium hard and belong to the hydrochemical types Ca-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3.

In general, the studied waters belong to the same category of Earth-alkaline-bicarbonate-waters. They are low content mineral waters (< 1 gr/lt) and the prevailing hydrochemical type is Ca-Mg-HCO3. The mineral water of "Kokkino Nero" (= red water) forms an exception as it has high TDS value (2309,5 mg/l) and high CO2 (880 mg/l). This water is characterised as Ca-Mg-HCO3 mineral water. Generally, the springs of Mt. Ossa have good quality water. The main factor that controls their chemistry is the mineralogical composion of the petrological formations (aquifers) occurring in the area. Anthropogenic influences were not detected in the majority of the springs.

Paper language: german, german abstract

Vol. 18, p. 258-288: 

Wasserhaushalt im Aliakmonas-Gebiet (Griechenland); Bilanzierung und Modellierung
[Water Budget in Aliakmonas Area (Greece) - A Water Balance Model]

Eleni Zagana & Peter Udluft

Hydrological investigations have been carried out in the Aliakmonas river basin in northern Greece. With the help of the computer program MODBIL (UDLUFT, 1994) a water budget for subcatchment areas as well as for the hole catchment area was calculated. Groundwater recharge derived from the water balance model amounted to 172 mm/y for the northernmost part of the catchment and decreased to 131 mm/y and 83 mm/y further east and south. For the whole river basin the modelled runoff reached 357 mm/y compared to 325 mm/y measured at the gauging station Ilarion.

Paper language: german, german abstract

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