HU - Hydrogeology and Environment

Journal of the Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environment, University of Würzburg (ISSN 09309-3757)

Editorial office: BGI, Greisingstr. 8, 97074 Würzburg, GERMANY

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Vol. 2 (1991)


Vol. 2, p. 1-31: 

Hydrogeologische Untersuchungen zur Einzugsgebietsbestimmung der Mittelstreuer Quelle (Unterfranken)

[Hydrogeolocical Investigations for Evaluation the Catchment Area of the Mittelstreu Springs (Lower Franconia, Germany)]

M. Hofmann, P. Udluft, H.-Ch. Krzemin

Lower Franconia, Triassic, Catchment area, karst

Abstract: The catchment area of the Mittelstreu springs is located geological in the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk formations (Triassic) in the north and northwest of these springs. Within the Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) the most groundwater inflow and outflow occurs in parting planes, ruptures and fractures, the groundwater flow in the Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk) aquifers is taking place mostly in karstic cavities. It was found that the hugest cavities occur along a streamline between Ostheim v.d. Rhön and the Mittelstreu springs. The intensity of karstification in this region influences the groundwater to flow from the east and west to this area, where the water is collected and drained to the springs. The hydrologic budget of the catchment area has shown the following quantities: a mean annual precipitation of 644 mm, a mean annual potential evaporation of 509 mm and an mean annual actual evaporation of 410 mm. The mean annual recharge of groundwater was calculated to be 7.5 l s-1 km-2; the mean annual discharge of the Mittelstreu springs is found to be 266 l s-1. For the whole catchment area the amount of interstices is roughly 0.4 %. Using the above mentioned values it could be concluded that the catchment area is equal to 35.5 km². Considering a discharge loss from the Streu river at Ostheim v.d. Rhön of around 40 l s-1 as leakage to the groundwater the catchment area was recalculated to be nearly 30 km². The model results have shown that a discharge of 266 l s-1 at the Mittelstreu springs could only be reached if there is a big drainage system between Ostheim v.d. Rhön and the springs with kf-value of around 0.1 m s-1. With increasing distance of this drainage line the kf-values decrease to 10-4 m s-1 within the Middle triassic formations (Muschelkalk) and to around 10-5 m s-1 within the Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein). Based on the model calculations the darcian velocity (specific discharge) between Ostheim v.d. Rhön and the Mittelstreu springs was calculated to be 63 m d-1, the average flow velocity to be 157.5 m d-1. Due to increasing in the groundwater gradient after long-period of precipitation the average flow velocity can slightly increase.

Paper language: german, german abstract

 Vol. 2, p. 33-58:

The Inadequacy of Stabilization ponds Treatment as Manifested by the Effects of Khirbet As-Samra Effluent on the Groundwater Quality of the Surrounding Area

E. Salameh, H. Hannayan

Jordan is a country with semi-arid climate, hot during summer and with very scarce water resources. The growing demand for water consumption has surpassed all other needs of the country; due to the remarkably high population growth rate and continual upgrading in the standard of living. Agricultural and industrial needs are also increasing rapidly. All of Jordan's water resources are nearly used and by the year 2000, the country will be suffering from water shortage. So far, even the valuable fossil water has been used for irrigation in certain areas of the country. Also, due to unsound planning and lack of proper insight into the future, effluents of poor quality from sewage treatment plants are being disposed off into wadis as Khirbet As-Samra (KS) waste stabilization ponds, in the case of the effluent of which discharge into Wadi Dhuleil. The groundwater in Wadi Dhuleil used to be, before 1985 i.e. the commencement of KS plant, of high quality and was used by the inhabitants of the area to satisfy their domestic and irrigational needs. After 1985, many well owners started to complain about the water quality of their wells; hence many wells rendered unsuitable even for irrigation such as the Tillawi and Hashimiyeh wells. In this study, three wells lying downstream of KS plant outlet and two wells lying upstream of it were monitored. Historic results over the past 1 - 2 decades were used in evaluating the effects of KS effluent on the groundwater resources of the area. The downstream wells, prior to 1985, were of high quality but later started to deteriorate. Increases in all parameters are encountered, although initially (prior to 1985), increases in certain parameters were mild and were due to overpumping of the well water. Later these increases continued at much higher rate although the water table in the area has risen by some 20 m, with a variety of indications showing domestic wastewater pollution effects. Groundwater level measurements indicate a recharge mouth in KS area and along Wadi Dhuleil. Hence, it can be deduced that a source of inferior water quality is recharging the groundwater and causing these increases in parameters. Since no source of pollution, other than KS plant, is encountered in the area and its surroundings and because the parameters in the groundwater increase towards KS plant and Wadi Dhuleil, it can be deduced that effluent from KS plants is the source of pollution affecting the groundwater and rendering it unsuitable for almost all purposes. Such disposals impose yet another restrain on the water shortage of the country. Comparatively, the two example wells taken upstream of KS showed mild increases in the water quality parameters up till 1981 - 1982, due to overpumping of the well water. But due to the wet years the water table rose and these values decreased and continued at a constant level after 1986. It is expected that the poor effluent of KS if not improved will cause further pollution and quality deterioration of the groundwater resources of the entire area.

Paper language: english

Vol. 2, p. 59-111: 

Variabilität der Sickerwasserqualität - Ergebnisse von Saugkerzenmessungen

[Variability of Soil Water Quality - Results from Suction Cup Measurements]

J. Grossmann, R. Kloss & P. Udluft

Soil Water, Suction Cups, Soil Chemistry, Statistics, Variability

Abstract: The spatial variability of the chemical properties of soil at two measuring points has been investigated and tested by suction cups. The evaluation of the results was concentrated on the statistical distribution of the measured data, where first the plausibility and spatial independence of the measured data was investigated. The influence of different factors, e.g. vegetation, seasonal variation, measuring depth has been considered. The results are of great importance for the organization of the measuring programs and evaluation of the data. in the practice, the spatial variability of the soil properties plays an important role for the problems of artificial irrigation, sample collection to identify the actual state of the soil (i.e. Nmin test) and to ascertain the yield by fertilizer distribution. In order to consider the spatial-dependence between two sample sites, a minimum distance must be kept between both of them. Increasing the number of repetitions, increases the probability that the random sample corresponds the means of the universe. Herewith the knowledge between the random sample and the confidence level is of importance for the practice. Presumption for the estimation is the knowledge of the standard deviation of all the measured data. The statistical distribution of the measured data was examined by using the chi²- and KOLMOGOROFF-SMIRNOFF test. Graphical tests are proved to be useless. It was tested on normal and log-normal distribution of the measured data. Both of the distribution tests, without regard to the small variations, have shown the same results. The factors that influence the variability are the concentration level and the measured depth. However, it was found that the variability increases by decreasing the concentration and increasing of the measured depth. The influence of the vegetation did not investigate in this study. The variation coefficients are in the range of 20 to 60 %, where extreme values could be more than 100 %. potassium, nitrate and zinc have shown high variability, sodium and DOC (SAC 254) value have relatively low variability.

Paper language: german; german abstract

Vol. 2, p. 113-128: 

Prognose rezenter Carbonatausfällung im Tiefengrundwasserbereich.

[Prognosis of Recent Carbonate Precipitation in Deep Groundwater]

M. Hofmann

dissolution and precipitation mechanism, deep groundwater, Lower Franconia

Abstract: Simple mass-balance calculations on deep groundwaters of the Lower Franconia showed that carbonate precipitation should occur. it was until now not known, which physical-hydrochemical processes are responsible for this mechanism. By using thermodynamic modelling the influence of ionic strength (mixing), temperature and pressure on the saturation of deep groundwater (Lower Franconia) with respect to different mineral phases was investigated. It could be shown that the calcit-oversaturation is mainly caused by mixing of two deep groundwater types. The physico-chemical processes of the genesis of a deep groundwater near Bad Kissingen were quantified.

Paper language: german; german abstract

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